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Latvijas Republikais a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europeone of the three Baltic states. After centuries of SwedishLivonianPolish and Russian rulea rule mainly executed by the privileged Baltic German aristocracythe Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November after declaring independence from Russia in the aftermath of World War I. Latvia is a democratic republic and a highly europa club casino latvia country.

Its capital Riga served as the European Capital of Culture in Latvian is the official language. Latvia is a unitary statedivided into administrative divisionsof which are municipalities and 9 are cities. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions.

As a consequence of centuries of Russian rule — and later Soviet occupationLatvia is home to a large number of ethnic Russians Latvia europa club casino latvia historically predominantly Protestant Lutheranexcept for wirklich play online casino malaysia her Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic. ForLatvia was listed 46th on the Human Development Index and as a high income country on 1 July The name Latvija is derived from the name of the ancient Latgaliansone of four Indo-European Baltic tribes along with CouroniansSelonians and Semigallianswhich formed the ethnic core of modern Latvians together with the Finnic Livonians.

CuroniansLatgaliansSeloniansSemigallians in Latvian: In the 12th century in the territory of Latvia, there were 14 lands with their rulers: Although the local people had had contact with the outside world for read article, they became more fully integrated into the European socio-political system in the 12th century.

When peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians europa club casino latvia force of arms. Latgaliathe easternmost region of Latvia, became a part of the Inflanty Voivodeship of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, Swedenand Russia struggled for click at this page in the eastern Baltic.

Riga became the capital of Swedish Livonia and the largest city in the entire Swedish Empire. Several important cultural changes occurred during this time. Under Swedish and largely German rule, visit web page Latvia adopted Lutheranism as its main religion. The ancient tribes of the Couronians, Semigallians, Selonians, Livs, and northern Latgallians assimilated to form the Latvian peoplespeaking one Latvian language.

Throughout all the centuries, however, an actual Latvian state had not been money nz real slots, so the borders and definitions of who exactly fell within that group are largely subjective.

The native dialect remained distinct, although it acquired many Polish and Russian loanwords. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became an autonomous Russian province the Courland Governorate inbringing all of what is now Latvia into the Russian Empire. All three Baltic provinces preserved local laws, German as the local official language and their own parliament, the Landtag. During the Great Northern War —up to 40 percent of Latvians died from famine and plague.

The emancipation of the serfs took place in Courland in and in Vidzeme in During the 19th century, the social structure changed dramatically. The Young Latvian Latvian: Russification began in Latgale europa club casino latvia the Polish led the January Uprising in Popular discontent exploded in the Russian Revolutionwhich took a nationalist character in the Baltic provinces.

During these two centuries Latvia experienced economic and construction boom — ports were expanded Riga became the largest port in the Russian Empirerailways built; new europa club casino latvia, banks, and a University were established; many residential, public theatres and museumsand school buildings were erected; new parks formed; and so on.

Worth mentioning is the fact that numeracy was also higher in the Estonian and Latvian parts of europa club casino latvia Russian Empire, which may have been influenced by the Protestant religion of the inhabitants. World War I devastated the territory of what became the state of Latvia, and other western parts of the Russian Empire. Demands for self-determination were initially confined to autonomyuntil a power vacuum europa club casino latvia created by the Russian Revolution infollowed by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Russia and Germany in Marchthen the Allied armistice with Germany on 11 November The war of europa club casino latvia that followed was part of a general chaotic period of civil europa club casino latvia new border wars in Eastern Europe.

A freely elected Constituent assembly convened on 1 Mayand adopted a liberal constitution, the Satversmein February Since then, it has been amended and is still in effect in Latvia today. Http://allyouneeddirectory.info/what-is-deposit-slip-in-bank.phpthe extent of cultivated land surpassed the pre-war level. Innovation and rising productivity led to rapid growth of the machine the show slot play money me online, but it soon suffered from the effects of the Great Depression.

Latvia europa club casino latvia signs of economic recovery, and the electorate had steadily moved toward the centre during the parliamentary period. On 5 OctoberLatvia was forced europa club casino latvia accept a "mutual assistance" pact with the Soviet Union, granting the Soviets roulette erfahrung eurogrand right to station between 25, and 30, troops on Latvian territory.

There were some spontaneous uprisings by Latvians against the Red Army which helped the Germans. By 29 June Riga was reached and with Soviet troops killed, captured or retreating, Latvia was left under the control of German forces by early July. Under German this web page, Latvia was administered as part read more Reichskommissariat Ostland.

Latvian paramilitary and Auxiliary Police units established by the occupation authority participated in the Holocaust and other atrocities. On occasions, especially inopposing Latvian troops faced each other in battle.

Inwhen Soviet military advances reached Latvia, heavy fighting took place in Latvia between German and Soviet troops, which ended in another German defeat. Inpart of the Latvian territory once more came under Soviet control. The Soviets immediately began to reinstate the Soviet system.

After the German surrender, it became clear that Soviet forces were there to stay, and Latvian national partisanssoon joined by German collaborators, began to europa club casino latvia against the new occupier. Anywhere fromto as many asEuropa club casino latvia took refuge from the Soviet army by fleeing to Germany and Sweden.

On 25 March43, rural residents " kulaks " and Latvian patriots "nationalists" were deported to Siberia article source a sweeping Operation Priboi in all three Baltic stateswhich was carefully planned and approved in Moscow already on 29 January In the post-war period, Latvia was made to adopt Soviet farming methods.

Rural areas were forced more info collectivisation. All of the minority schools Jewish, Polish, Belarusian, Estonian, Lithuanian were closed down leaving only two media of instructions in the schools: New industry was created in Latvia, including a major machinery factory RAF in Jelgavaelectrotechnical factories in Rigachemical factories in DaugavpilsValmiera and Olaine —and some food and oil processing plants.

Latvia had its own film europa club casino latvia and musical records factory LPs. However, there were not enough people to operate the newly built factories. In the second half of the s, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev started to introduce political and economic reforms in the Soviet Union that were called glasnost and perestroika. In the summer ofthe first large demonstrations were held in Riga at the Freedom Monument —a symbol of independence.

In the summer ofa national movement, coalescing in the Popular Front of Latviawas opposed by the Interfront. The Latvian SSR, along with the other Baltic Republics was allowed greater autonomy, and inthe http://allyouneeddirectory.info/online-casino-auszahlung-scheck.php pre-war Flag of Latvia flew again, replacing the Soviet Latvian flag as the official flag in Inthe Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a resolution on the Occupation of the Baltic statesin which it declared the occupation "not in accordance with law", and not the "will of the Soviet people".

Pro-independence Popular Front of Latvia candidates gained a two-thirds majority in the Supreme Council in the March democratic elections. However, the central power in Moscow continued to regard Latvia as a Soviet republic in and In January europa club casino latvia, Soviet political and military forces tried unsuccessfully to overthrow the Republic of Latvia authorities by occupying the central publishing house in Riga and establishing a Committee of National Salvation to usurp governmental functions.

During the transitional period, Moscow maintained many central Europa club casino latvia state authorities in Europa club casino latvia. However, universal citizenship for all permanent residents was not adopted. Instead, citizenship was granted to persons who had been citizens of Latvia at the day of loss of independence at as well as their descendants. As a consequence, the majority of ethnic non-Latvians did not receive Latvian citizenship since neither they nor their parents had ever been citizens of Latvia, becoming non-citizens or citizens of other former Soviet republics.

Bymore than half of non-citizens had taken naturalisation exams and europa club casino latvia Latvian citizenship. Still, today there arenon-citizens in Latvia, which check this out They have no citizenship of any countryand cannot vote in Latvia. The Republic of Latvia declared the end of the transitional period and restored full independence on 21 Augustin the aftermath of the failed Europa club casino latvia coup attempt.

Russia ended its military presence by completing its troop withdrawal in and shutting down the Skrunda-1 radar station in Language and citizenship laws have http://allyouneeddirectory.info/blackjack-online-ordering.php opposed by many Russophones. Citizenship was not automatically extended to former Soviet citizens who settled during the Soviet occupation, or to their offspring.

Children born to non-nationals after the reestablishment of independence are automatically entitled to citizenship. Albeit having experienced a difficult transition to a liberal economy and its re-orientation toward Western Europe, Latvia is one of the fastest growing economies in the European Union. InRiga was the European Capital of Culturethe euro was introduced as the currency of the country and europa club casino latvia Latvian was named vice-president of the European Commission.

In Latvia held the presidency of Council of the European Union. An inlet of the Baltic Sea, the shallow Gulf of Riga is situated in the northwest of the country. Coastal regions, especially the western coast of Courland Peninsulapossess a more maritime climate with cooler summers and milder winters, while eastern europa club casino latvia exhibit a more continental climate novoline online casino warmer summers and harsher winters.

Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts read more mid-December and lasts until mid-March.

Summer starts in Europa club casino latvia and lasts until August. Summers are usually warm and sunny, with cool evenings and nights. Spring and autumn bring fairly mild weather. Most of the country is composed of fertile lowland plains and moderate hills. In a typical Latvian landscape, a mosaic of vast forests alternates with fields, farmsteads, and pastures.

Arable land is spotted with birch groves and wooded clusters, which afford a habitat for numerous plants and animals. Latvia has europa club casino latvia of kilometres of undeveloped seashore—lined by pine forests, dunes, and continuous white sand beaches. Latvia has the 5th highest proportion of land covered by forests in the European Union, after Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Slovenia. Major rivers include the Daugava RiverLielupeGaujaVentaand Salacathe largest spawning ground for salmon in the eastern Baltics.

Latvia has a long europa club casino latvia of conservation. The first laws and regulations were promulgated in the 16th and 17th centuries. Latvia has ratified the international Washington, Bern, and Ramsare conventions. Approximately 30, species of flora and fauna have been registered in Latvia.


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